This diet guide may be freely copied and circulated. Tom Lonsdale Veterinary Surgeon
NSW 2756 E-mail: tom (at);  Australia January 2006 ©

(Australian College of Veterinary Scientists – Science Week 2007 – Small Animal Medicine Chapter meeting)

Feeding cats for health and longevity – an idiosyncratic perspective#

Richard Malik DVSc MVetClinStud PhD FACVSc FASM

Woodgreen, Wombeyan Caves Road, Via Taralga 2580


While most of what I am going to write is based more on common sense and anecdote

than hard evidence (Stogdale, 2004), many of the contentions herein are supported by

recent scientific papers and clinical review articles (see bibliography). In any event I

think it is timely that more common sense was brought to bear on this issue.

I will draw together historical information about how cats have been fed in Australia

since the 1960s and how and why changes in feeding practices have occurred. I will

provide some comments concerning how cats are currently fed in America, and why this

has changed over the last few years. Finally, I will touch on how “big cats” are fed in

captivity, and provide some recommendations for feeding cats at different life stages, in

an Australian setting. Interestingly, feeding practices appear to have been shifted more

as a result of marketing forces, rather than by the recommendations of veterinarians or

independent feline nutritionists.

My opinion has been formulated on the basis of being a veterinarian for over 25 years,

taking into account the things I have seen and read over that time, and also anecdotal

experience with my cats (n=4) and my friends’ and relations’ cats. They are supported

also by the impressions of my senior colleague Dr Victor Menrath.

How cats have been fed in Australia since the 1960’s

During the 1960s and 1970s cats were fed mostly a mixture of table scraps, cheap raw

beef and offal (mainly raw beef heart and liver). Tinned food was all fish and not

commonly fed. Kittens were recommended to be fed strips of raw beef supplemented by

calcium carbonate powder (“1 teaspoon per pound of beef”) plus liver and vitamin A

weekly. Special recipes were recommended for pregnant and lactating queens (Victor

Menrath, personal communication).

Commercial cat food was introduced before I graduated from vet school in 1981.

Commercial canned cat foods (based on meat, meat by-products, offal and/or fish) and

extruded commercial dry food (kibble) were widely available at supermarkets, pet stores

and other outlets. Indeed, the feeding of these alleged “nutritionally complete” foods

was recommended by my lecturers at The University of Sydney. As well, “pet meat and

pet mince” were available through pet stores and supermarkets. It was inexpensive as it

was typically based on kangaroo meat (preserved with sulphites), or other meat or meat

# The views expressed in this paper are my own and not necessarily those of any of the organisations

with which I am affiliated. I have no financial interest in any pet food manufacturer. Address for


Australian College of Veterinary Scientists – Science Week 2007 – Small Animal Medicine Chapter meeting


by-products unsuitable for human consumption, and this is still the case. It should be

emphasised that then and even now, in NSW at least, there is no legislation as to how

pet food should be constituted, or about its safety or hygiene, there is no requirement to

list all the ingredients, or to state whether or not preservatives have been added (Malik

and Sibraa, 2005). This last statement is remarkable, and surely deserves the attention of

the Australian Veterinary Association and the Australian College of Veterinary


Nutritional diseases referable to feeding diets that were not nutritionally “complete” are

still seen today, but less commonly than they apparently were in the 1960s and 1970s.

These include nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism (from feeding diets high in

phosphate and low in calcium to skeletally immature kittens) (Watson, 1983)

hypervitaminosis A (when cats are fed a diet rich in liver) (Seawright et al, 1967),

pansteatitis (from a diet high in polyunsaturated fats without sufficient antioxidants e.g.

certain types of fish) (Watson et al, 1973), thiamine deficiency (from sulphur dioxide

in fresh meat treated with sulphite preservatives, fresh fish containing thiaminases or

meat that had been cooked without addition of supplementary thiamine) (Malik &

Sibraa, 2005). Experimentally, it was known that when cats were fed certain

commercial diets, commercial dog food, or vegetarian diets, they would develop retinal

degeneration due to taurine deficiency (Markwell et al, 1995), but this was on the

whole rare because of the large amount of fresh meat typically fed to cats in Australia.

Commercial foods had well known disease associations, although their documentation

took time to be widely accepted. Historically, and drawing from epidemiologic data

from the USA, there seemed to be an association between feeding commercial cat food

and the development of hyperthyroidism. Anecdotally, Vic Menrath’s experience with

hyperthyroidism in Australia prior to the early 1980s was a single cat with a thyroid

adenoma in 1977; in contrast, a substantial percentage of cats 12 to 15 years-of-age

currently have thyroid nodules and often go on to develop hyperthyroidism. Feeding dry

food was strongly associated with the development of feline idiopathic cystitis (known

also as FUS, FLUTD, interstitial cystitis) and urethral obstruction, especially if the ash

content was poorly constituted (Bartges & Kirt, 2006). As an aside, it has been

concerning for me hear from colleagues at Kasetsaart University about the huge

increase in idiopathic cystitis and urinary obstruction in Thailand since the introduction

there of commercial dry cat food in place of table scraps and other rations based on

meat by-products. In the USA, there is currently a marked increase in the number of

oxalate uroliths being diagnosed in cats, not only in the bladder and urethra, but also in

the ureter(s), and there is a consensus that the prevalence of this type of stone has

increased directly as a result of the widespread use of acidifying dry food diets fed in

supermarkets and veterinary clinics across North America, Ironically, these had been

introduced to “promote lower urinary tract health” (Bartges & Kirt, 2006).

Odontoclastic resorptive lesions on teeth were rarely, if ever, seen in the 1960s and

1970s, but this entity became increasingly prevalent in the mid to late 1980s (Reiter &

Mendoza 2002; Victor Menrath, personal communication). Food allergies manifest as

“miliary dermatitis”, eosinophilic granuloma complex and inflammatory bowel disease

were rarely seen in the 1960s and 1970s except when cats were fed fresh or canned fish;

these entities became much more prevalent when commercial canned and dry food were

introduced (Victor Menrath, personal communication).

Australian College of Veterinary Scientists – Science Week 2007 – Small Animal Medicine Chapter meeting


In Australia, until recently, three manufacturers have dominated the supermarket cat

food market – Walthams/Uncle Bens (owned by the Mars Corporation), Friskies

(Nestle/Purina) and Snappy Tom, the latter using predominantly fish by-products. Also

available is fresh meat from a variety of small manufacturers from at pet stores, “pet

barns” and supermarkets; it is inexpensive, accounting for an important portion of the

market, especially in urban areas.

Few papers from academic veterinarians have provided insightful information

about what cats are fed in Australia since 1980 and the implications of these

feeding practices. Although the market is regularly surveyed by organisations such as

the Pet Information and Advisory Service, this information remains “hard to get” as it

used for marketing purposes and coveted by the organisations that paid for its


In the late 1980s and 1990s, “Premium” pet food (predominantly dry food) and

“Prescription diets” became increasingly available in Australia, and were widely

endorsed and sold by veterinarians. Indeed, initially they were generally only available

through veterinary outlets. Hills (owned by Colgate Palmolive), Iams/Eukanuba and

Walthams/Royal Canin are currently the three main players. Nestle Purina had a

transient presence in the 1990s but failed to gain a significant veterinary market share,

although it has remained successful in the premium supermarket division. These dry

foods generally use high quality animal protein, typically in larger proportions than in

less expensive supermarket brands, and contain also a high fat content. They are

exceedingly palatable, produce a small volume stool and are “addictive” for cats. I

believe that these diets have contributed to obesity in cats in North America and

Australia, as people generally fail to follow the feeding recommendations provided

by manufacturers, or even worse, feed them ad libutum throughout the day. Cats

require only small amounts of these diets for maintenance energy requirements – less

than people are accustomed to feeding based on their experience with supermarket

brands. The ration is consumed so quickly and with so much relish that cats do not seem

satiated. Accordingly, they often “complain” vocally, and through their body language,

that they have not received enough food (the Oliver Twist syndrome). Not surprisingly,

cats become conspicuously obese when fed in this manner, with prominent deposition

of adipose tissue in the inguinal region, about the falciform ligament and in the perirenal

region. Ironically, cats are then “prescribed” a “light” ration that is less calorically


The explosion of knowledge in feline medicine of the 1980s and 1990s resulted in the

discovery of important new disease associations. Dilated cardiomyopathy was shown

largely attributable to feeding diets marginally deficient in taurine (Markwell et al,

1995). Upon reflection, it seems to me that the uncommonness of this type of feline

DCM in Australian cats was likely to be attributable to easy access to fresh meat,

fish and animal by-products (all rich in taurine). More recently, the importance of

the protein content of the diet and its glycaemic index has been shown to be of great

importance in relation to obesity, fat metabolism and the predisposition towards

diabetes mellitus. Professor Jacqueline Rand’s group at the University of Queensland is

at the forefront of this research. Cats that become fat, especially when they are fed a

high carbohydydarate ration (with a high glycaemic index), are at risk for developing

Australian College of Veterinary Scientists – Science Week 2007 – Small Animal Medicine Chapter meeting


insulin resistance, glucose toxicity (a.k.a. Islet exhaustion), “transient” and eventually

permanent diabetes mellitus (Zoran, 2002; Hoenig, 2006; Kirk 2006).

Many authorities believe that the feeding of highly palatable, “addictive”, high fat

“premium” cat foods ad libutum to cats in North America accounts for the high

incidence of feline diabetes there. Likewise, many experts believe that there may be an

association between the feeding of these diets and the sporadic development of hepatic

lipidosis should such cats develop intercurrent disease associated with anorexia, for

example pancreatitis. The increasing prevalence of hepatic lipidosis in Australia (Musca

et al, 2006) seems to parallel, perhaps coincidentally, the penetration of the Australian

cat food market with these US-style diets. In my view, obesity contributes also to

degenerative joint disease, because an athletic animal like the cat which jumps and lands

(often onto hard ground, taking most of the weight into the forelimbs) is at much greater

risk for developing osteoarthritis when overweight. As an aside, apart from feeding cats

less food, the best way to avoid obesity is by giving cats an enriched environment,

including lots of “vertical space” (ladders, stairs, climbing poles, “cat castles”) and by

providing them with a feline companion (which is helpful also for out veterinary

business!). Feeding a “light” commercial diet is in no shape or form the answer to a cat

with obesity!

“It just goes to show that when you try to fly against the face of nature, especially with a creature

that has been resistant to selective change for tens of thousands of years, you can expect trouble.” –

Vic Menrath, the first Australian-trained feline specialist

Re-emergence of the view that ‘natural’ foods are necessary for cats in


In the 1990s, Tom Lonsdale, Breck Muir and a variety of like-minded Australian

colleagues helped remind our profession and the general public that cats were obligate

carnivores, and that they did very well when fed more “natural” food such as chicken

wings, chicken drumsticks, lamb shanks, chunks of uncut red meat, and the like

(Lonsdale 2001). Although there was a strong emphasis on “texture” in relation to

periodontal heath, the raw meaty bones fraternity provided cogent arguments that fresh

meat by-products “on the bone”, and containing skin and connective tissues, were also

an important source of varied micronutrients. Food was eaten slowly and with effort,

rather than being gulped down in a short time. Presumably this would result in a less

extreme post-prandial alkaline tide. There is also much more tenacity about possession

of food when natural diets are provided, and there is no doubt that cats seem more

satisfied at the completion of a “natural meal”. Effort extended in chewing, gnawing

and consuming the ration provides exercise for the gums (and indeed for the whole cat).

Importantly, the natural self-cleaning action of stripping the flesh off the bone reduces

tartar accumulation and promotes good gingival and oral cavity hygiene. Even tearing

apart long strips or chunks of meat can achieve this end. This contention was largely

supported by an independent review of the literature commissioned by the Australian

Veterinary Association (Watson, 1994).

It seems that the influence of this clade of veterinarians had an important impact on pet

food manufacturers, worldwide, – some responded with diets designed to require more

chewing (such as Hills T/D™) or with additional products designed to achieve the same

Australian College of Veterinary Scientists – Science Week 2007 – Small Animal Medicine Chapter meeting


end (e.g. “Greenies”). Interestingly, there has been a recent trend on the North

American feline literature to re-assert the importance of feeding cats as obligate

carnivores – with a requirement for high protein in the ration. Articles like Debra

Zoran’s excellent reviews in JAVMA and the pink pages of Journal of Feline Medicine

and Surgery on “the carnivore connection” testify to a paradigm shift in our thinking in

relation to feline nutrition. It behoves us to remember Niels Pedersen’s notion that cats

are almost subclinically dehydrated even when fed natural diets; feeding a dry ration to

such a species is in my view looking for trouble, as cats are almost insipiently

dehydrated as a matter of course.

“A senior veterinary representative from a multinational pet food corporation looked at me like I’d

gone insane when I told her I fed my cats a 50% raw meat diet and that I didn’t agree with feeding

dry food to cats. On a canned/raw diet my cats can be fed ad libitum, still retain a trim figure and

barely touch the water bowl – as soon as I give them dry they become insatiated, obese little

monsters that are also desperate to drink out of the toilet.” – Dr Carolyn O’Brien, a registered feline

specialist from the University of Melbourne

“Experience of 40 years of practice and tens of thousands of cats tells me that cats on a basically

raw meat diet live longest. Do I have proof? Of course not.” – Assoc Prof Vic Menrath

The increasing role of multinational pet food manufacturers in nutritional


A little spoken of trend in relation to feline nutrition is the influence of multinational

food corporations on the direction of feline nutritional research. The vast majority of

nutritional studies in cats – and dogs for that matter – are conducted by or funded by

corporations such as Walthams, Nestle Purina, Iams and Hills. Although these studies

are often of the highest standard, and conducted by independent researchers of the first

order, concern must arise as to bias entering the scientific literature when as

manufacturers are setting research agendas. These multinational companies expend

considerable effort in providing nutritional information to veterinary students, the

veterinary profession and new cat owners. In my view the information they present is

often commercially driven but cloaked as scientific dogma. Finally, these companies

employ some of the most qualified veterinary internists in the country to espouse the

virtues of their products. Indeed they are subsidizing this meeting, the proceedings these

notes are printed on, and no doubt the current session!

Thus there is an unfortunate entwining of competing interests – commercial and

academic – which has muddied the evolution of knowledge in relation to feline

nutrition. Most veterinary researchers in academia interested in small animal nutrition or

gastroenterology receive substantial grant support from these manufacturers.

Unfortunately, little money is available to support independent nutritional research, as

this is not a priority area for the Australian Research Council, and such research is

inherently expensive because it requires animals to be housed, fed and maintained for

substantial periods of time. For these reasons, little is being done to compare the

nutritional impact of commercial versus natural diets. Consequently, I challenge a

multinational pet food manufacturer to act as an industry partner for a funded

ARC linkage grant to ascertain the health and longevity benefits of feeding a

hybrid commercial/natural diet in comparison to normal commercial cat food!

Australian College of Veterinary Scientists – Science Week 2007 – Small Animal Medicine Chapter meeting


While the valuable contribution made by pet food manufacturers to our knowledge of

feline nutrition is acknowledged, it behoves us as professionals to ensure that our

expertise is not compromised by too close an association with bodies with commercial

interests in the outcome of our research. Rigorous independent research is the only way

to ensure this.

Teleology and “big cats”

Finally, we need to think a little about the likely natural diet of cats. Without doubt,

through evolution, cats would have eaten predominantly small mammalian prey, such as

mice, rats, field mice, rabbits and the like. Birds and insects would in some situations be

important food sources also, and they certainly are reported to be present in the stomach

contents of feral cats that are killed by commercial shooters. Fish would not be a natural

food item for small cats (except for the specially adapted fishing cat), and neither would

they likely scavenge larger prey such as the ruminant species. Rabbits would provide

for a large meal, followed by a period of rest for digestion. On the other hand, rodents

and small birds would likely be devoured quickly, with the cat moving soon onto the

next “victim”. Small prey would be almost totally consumed – flesh bones, gut and

ingest. Rabbit would be nearly totally consumed, except for part of the pelt and the

head. In contrast, large cats (lions, tigers, leopard, cheetah etc) generally eat

intermittently, feasting on a large carcass that would provide foods requiring digestion

for a substantial period. They would eat meat, bones, guts and their contents, according

to hierarchal considerations.

In zoological gardens and game parks, attempts to feed large cats artificial man-made

diets have resulted in a variety of disease issues, especially in relation to poor

periodontal health resulting in periodontal disease and palatine erosions. Fitch & Fagan

(1982) conducted a survey which revealed that of 20 cheetahs in a wildlife park fed a

formulated diet, 15 (75%) had perforation of the palate by the penetrating action of the

lower molars. In contradistinction, 39 individuals fed animal carcases lacked the disease

condition. Similar observations have been made by others (Shepherdson et al, 1993;

Phillips 1993). These various authors also commented that cheetahs fed “natural diets’

also seemed behaviourally more content, with less stereotypic behaviours such as

pacing. Or stated another way, feeding of natural food would appear to represent a form

of environmental enrichment. Vosburgh et al (1982) made similar observations in

relation to timber wolves. As a result, it is recommended that “big cats” be fed

predominantly “natural food” (Lindburg, 1988). There is no Science Diet for lions and

tigers, and they don’t seem to need a hairball control diet either!

My recommendations for feeding cats

Having provided all this background, the logical question to ask is – how do I think we

should be feeding our domestic cats? Apart from my experience (described above) my

recommendations have been strongly influenced by the writings of Drs Tom Lonsdale,

Ian Billinghurst, Tom Hungerford, Niels Pedersen, Debra Zoran and Dianne Addie.

Australian College of Veterinary Scientists – Science Week 2007 – Small Animal Medicine Chapter meeting


1. Kittens should be fed largely commercial premium cat food. A combination of

canned food and dry food is ideal. Commercial dry kitten food is calorically dense

and the best way to get them to grow rapidly. They additionally need to be

introduced to different tastes, flavours and textures1, but changes in the diet should

be gradual. Small meals typically are tolerated much better than large meals. There

is no need to give them milk, but a little milk is acceptable as a treat if they are not

lactose intolerant. Special cat milk is expensive and an indulgence, but I have no

issue with it being given. As well as this, raw food should be introduced several

times a week in place of the normal ration from about 12 weeks of age – to

expose them to the taste and texture of things like chicken wings and lamb cutlets –

but it should make up less than 10% of the total food intake over the course of a

week. Chicken wings should be fed only when very fresh (i.e. the day it is delivered

to the local butcher). Lamb cutlets can be fed raw, or after freezing (to kill

Toxoplasma zoites) and thawing. The critical thing at this age is to give a varied

ration with ideal calcium to phosphate ratio. The small number of Campylobacter

and Salmonella organisms present on chicken skin is well tolerated by the

gastrointestinal tract of kittens and cats, but the owners should wash their hands for

their hygiene after feeding this type of food. Routine anthelmintic dosing for

roundworms and tapeworms is critical at this stage in a cat’s life, and use of a

product that also kills lung worm larvae and fleas has a lot to recommend it.

2. Young adult cats should be fed more natural food, and ideally I would suggest

cats should get approximately 50% of their food from “natural” material that

needs chewing to be ingested. This needs dedicated owners, and the utilisation of

the patio, shower recess, backyard or laundry as a feeding platform.

Dry food should be phased out completely at this stage because (i) it generally

makes cats fat (unless owners feed it according to the manufacturers

recommendations) (ii) it is not natural (iii) it generally has too much processed

carbohydrate and thus an excessively high glycaemic index (iv) it often has too

much fat and excessive content of antioxidants and other artificial chemicals (v) its

use is associated with a higher risk of idiopathic cystitis developing. (vi) the diet has

so many different ingredients that the risk of it containing things to which the cat

can become allergic is higher than for a natural ration. Perhaps a very small amount

of premium dry food can be given occasionally as a treat.

Canned food is fine. I favour meat based food over fish based food, as I think it’s

“more natural”. Allergy to fish in not uncommon in cats with allergic skin disease

and food intolerance. Tuna perhaps can be fed as canned food once or twice a week.

I think the Fancy Feast™ food by Nestle Purina gives excellent variety of flavours

and ingredients and a convenient size. It’s pricey however. . Young adult cats are

active and burn calories rapidly. They need something in the order of 85 to 100

grams of canned food, or more, twice daily i.e. one can of Fancy Feast twice daily.

This can be replaced by a chicken wing, a chicken drumstick, a lamb cutlet, or a

1 Kittens should be introduced to bone gnawing as early as possible after weaning. If they are not introduced to

knawing and chewing during the critical 6 to 14 weeks-of-age developmental stage when their eating habits are

evolving and their peer competition for food is strong, it is much more difficult to succeed in this type of feeding

strategy (Vic Menrath, personal communication)

Australian College of Veterinary Scientists – Science Week 2007 – Small Animal Medicine Chapter meeting


piece of osso-bucco. Some cats need even more. A lamb shank has enough food to

keep a young adult cat going for 24 hours – if they chew it to the bone.

3. Older cats should be fed like younger cats, but they need less food as they are

less active. Cats older than 10 need about half as much as an active youngster.

Being obese increases arthritis issues and causes a shorter lifespan in most species

where the effect of obesity on lifespan has been well studied (e.g. rat, dog, humans).

So, keep cats lean!

4. Free acess to water is mandatory. Some cats prefer water that is running. Some cats

don’t like chlorine – so fill up the cat bowl with water from the kettle after it has

cooled down (boiling ‘blows off’ much of the chlorine).

5. If cats develop renal insufficiency in their old age, a mixture of natural food (for oral

hygiene) and Prescription canned (eg Hills canned k/d™) and dry renal prescription

diets are ideal, to limit phosphorus retention and to optimise fatty acid balance.

Avoid letting geriatric cats get fat on high fat palatable diets such as Hills Dry k/d or

Royal Canin kidney diet, which are both excellent and palatable for most cats. “Cat

milk” can be useful in older cats with renal insufficiency to get them to drink more,

and canned foods are less dehydrating that dry foods.

Final comments

Cats fed natural food as a large part of the ration have less tartar, and in my view

periodontal disease progresses more slowly than in cats provided exclusively with a

commercial ration. Even with natural food, cats develop gingival recession as a part of

the aging process, and may still get cervical erosive lesions. Periodic dental attention is

important to prevent oral cavity inflammation, which possibly contributes to an

increased risk for development of cancer and renal disease. This is especially

important as it permits old cats to continue to have health benefits of a natural

diet. Grooming cats on a daily basis with metal comb, especially older cats, is important

as hair causes large bowel issues (predisposing to constipation and even megacolon)

and irritation to the stomach (resulting in vomiting). This is always important, and

increasingly so in the older cat.

Further reading

1. Bartges JW, Kirt CA. Nutrition and lower urinary tract disease in cats. VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH


2. Dierenfeld ES. Nutrition of captive cheetahs – food composition and blood parameters. ZOO BIOLOGY 12 (1):

143-150 1993

3. Fitch HM, Fagan DA. Focal palatine erosion associated with dental malocclusion in captive cheetahs. ZOO

BIOLOGY 1:295-310 1982

4. German AJ. The growing problem of obesity in dogs and cats. JOURNAL OF NUTRITION 136 (7): 1940S-

1946S Suppl. 2006

5. Hoenig M. The cat as a model for human nutrition and disease. CURRENT OPINION IN CLINICAL


Australian College of Veterinary Scientists – Science Week 2007 – Small Animal Medicine Chapter meeting


6. Kirk CA. Feline diabetes mellitus: Low carbohydrates versus high fiber? VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH


7. Lonsdale T. Raw meaty bones promote health. Rivetco, 2001.

8. Lindburg DG. Improving the feeding of captive felines through application of field data. ZOO BIOLOGY

7:211-218. 1988.

9. Malik R, Sibraa D. Thiamine deficiency due to sulphur dioxide preservative in ‘pet meat’ – a case of déjà vu.


10. Markwell PJ, Earle KE. Taurine – an essential nutrient for the cat – a brief review of the biochemistry of its

requirement and the clinical consequences of deficiency. NUTRITION RESEARCH 15 (1): 53-58 1995

11. Phillips JA. Bone consumption by cheetahs at undisturbed kills: evidence for a lack of focal palatine erosion.

JOURNAL OF MAMMALOGY 74(2): 487-492 1993.

12. Reiter AM, Mendoza KA. Feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions – An unsolved enigma in veterinary dentistry.


13. Seawright AA, English PB, Gartner RJW. Hypervitaminosis A and deforming cervical spondylitis of cats.


14. Stogdale L. Sources of information on canine and feline nutrition. CANADIAN VETERINARY JOURNALREVUE


15. Shepherdson DJ, Carlstead K, Mellen JD, Seidensticker J. The influence of food presentation on the behavior of

small, cats in confined environments. ZOO BIOLOGY 12:203-216 1993.

16. Watson ADJ. Diet and periodontal disease in dogs and cats. AUSTRALIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL 71

(10): 313-318 1994.

17. Watson ADJ. Treatment of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in the cat. CANADIAN VETERINARY


18. Watson ADJ, Porges WL, Huxtable CR, et al. Pansteatitis in a cat. AUSTRALIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

49 (8): 388-392 1973

19. Zoran DL. The carnivore connection to nutrition in cats. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN VETERINARY

MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 221 (11): 1559-1567 2002.


The author wishes to thank Professor Paul Canfield, Dr Doug Bryden and Dr Joanna

White for their comments, suggestions and encouragement. Dr Victor Menrath wrote

me two pages of detailed comments and observations which I have intercalated into this